EDS 180 E-journal #3: An Understanding Towards Multigrade Teaching




It was my first time to do my demo teaching- but I am glad it ended successfully.

Trying what it was like to be a multigrade educator really made me nervous because when I was preparing for this activity together with my partner, ate Jeremaine, I was thinking of whether of not I would be successful in accomplishing this especially this kind of teaching is not the usual one because this is a form of alternative education that I have not encountered before. Managing two grades at the same time also made me worried because I might not be able to focus my attention on all students.

To have an understanding of the multigrade teaching however, one of the most essential steps that I have taken which has been very helpful to accomplish this activity is having a perspective of what an effective multigrade educator is like. Before starting this activity, I have been able to conduct an interview with the principal of Tambuyoc Multigrade Elementary School, Mrs. Sumera and she shared a lot of knowledge and experiences as a multigrade educator and she is really happy to share this with me because she wants to share with others more about awareness for multigrade teaching as a lot of people do not yet know about this aspect of education.

Before starting my demonstration of multigrade teaching, we have also been assigned to work with the adviser of the class of the one I would be teaching, Mr. Carlito Valdez Jr. who has also been very helpful to share points to consider when teaching to two grades in one class. Mr. Valdez said that being a multigrade educator is one of the most challenging teaching jobs but also one that is very rewarding. One of the most helpful points that he has also shared is that it is important to know about the learning needs and background context of the class to know what activities to implement to ensure the effective outcomes of learning.

On the day that I did my demonstration for multigrade teaching, one of the points that I put in mind is learning about the background context of my learners and by means of asking questions to my students for the day, tension eased and I have already been building the rapport and connection with the multigrade class which really warmed my heart. It has been heartbreaking to hear stories from the class of both 5th and 6th graders of how they were affected by flood in their rural community yet the lesson about protecting the environment really is helpful because the prior asking of questions from them helped the learners to be consistent in giving their shares of participation. Other students were not participating but little words of encouragement focused on these types of learners are indeed very helpful to move them to have the confidence to share in group work.

I thought that I would not be able to carry out this demonstration demo teaching alone but I glad I was able to do this with the help of the multigrade educators from Tambuyoc Multigrade Elementary School who helped me have an understanding of this real context of teaching multigrade class in a rural community.


Going back home, these are my little captures of the road from the multigrade school. The travel may have been far compared to the usual route of easy to access schools in our community. Nevertheless, in this travel towards understanding multigrade teaching, I am glad to be able to share what I have acquired as knowledge to be processed into application for the contribution for this aspect of education.


EDS 180 E-journal #1: Multigrade Teaching for Access of Education

Without taking up the course of EDS 180 here in my learning journey in the University of the Philippines Open, I would not even know about the existence of Multigrade Teaching and its potency as a field of education to have a major contribution for the social progress on the context of our country, Philippines.

Upon accomplishing readings and discussion forum for Module 1 about basic information about Multigrade Teaching, one of the points that struck me is the opportunity it gives for many learning especially those living in the remote and rural areas in the Philippines. Usually in these remote and rural areas, the context  of learners are usually from low income families that is why instead of traveling to far monograde schools located near the urban areas which can cost them a lot of money, the existence of multigrade schools is indeed needed cater the high ratio of learners with short percentage of teachers.



(Image derived from: https://borgenproject.org/education-in-the-philippines/)

With this potential of multigrade schools to bring a brighter future of education for learners in the rural areas however come the challenges of social perception that in these areas, there are no career opportunities for teachers thus resulting to the low percentages of those wanting to be posted in here.

The lack of awareness is one of the reasons for these problems and to combat this, there should be the emphasis sharing with more people how many learners in rural areas can have access to education thus battling poverty with the existence of multigrade schools. The aspect of how multigrade schools can lead to the achievement of goals for the Education for All movement should be brought about to the lives of many people especially of the government to avoid neglect on this aspect of education that can lead to the progress not only of the rural community but also of the whole society.



(Image derived from: https://www.usaid.gov/results-data/success-stories/rural-public-school-teachers-accelerate-learning-philippines)

As someone who took up the course of EDS 180, I hope that I can share more of my skills and knowledge as an educator to contribute to the research on more of the good points of multigrade teaching for a brighter future of education here in the Philippines. May this aspect in the field of alternative education garner more attention as it has a large potential to share in the building of a stronger foundation in the society based on knowledge and high quality education.


Little, A. W. (2001). Multigrade teaching: Towards an international research and policy agenda. International Journal of Educational Development, 21, 481-497.

Manitoba Education and Youth. (2003). Learning and teaching in the multilevel classroom (Chapter 1). In Independent together: Supporting the multilevel learning community. Manitoba, Canada: Crown in Right of Manitoba. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/docs/support/multilevel/ind_together_full.pdf\

Tanael, J.E. (2011, January 4). Multi Grade Classes in Philippine Education. Tulong-tulong sa Pagsulong ng Udyong!. Retrieved from http://udyong.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1472:multi-grade-classes-in-philippine-education&catid=90&Itemid=1267



EDS 151 E-journal # 4: Audio Resources

Provide a sample of an audio material that can be incorporated into a lesson. Using the rubric on provided, evaluate the audio resource. Suggest ways to improve the material and how can it be effectively utilized in a lesson.

Link to audio resource: https://www.storynory.com/the-spider-and-the-fly/

Screenshot 2019-08-16 23.47.48

The audio resource above is a reading interpretation of the story entitled The Spider and the Fly. This audio resource is commendable in terms of the high quality of how it has been produced. One of the most essential aspect in this audio resource is the level of engagement and interest that it helps to fuel especially for young learners from the elementary level.

The interest level and engagement is high in this audio resources because the one who did the reading interpretation used variations in voice tones, pitch, and syllabication depending on the character being portrayed in the story. In this way, young learners whose minds usually wander about in curiosity are being shifted in focus to also have their imagination stirred up in this story that they are able to hear in this audio resource of The Spider and the Fly. This audio resource’s use of the art of voice changing makes sure that it is not boring for the class compared to when the story is just read in a monotone manner.

In terms of suggestions for how this audio resource can be improved, I think it would also be a great idea if there are different readers for the different kinds of characters in the story. Nevertheless, this kind of audio resource of a reading of a story can be incorporated in lessons wherein the learners are required to cultivate imagination to be able to have the skill of creative thinking that will then prepare them to develop unique solutions for everyday life situations. Holistically speaking, when teachers tap into different resources of technology such as this audio resource discussed for this activity, the class can then be developed and prepared to be productive learners in a 21st century world that keep on progressing with technology.

Selection rubric from:



EDS 151 E-journal #5: Multimedia Resources

Select a lesson that incorporates multimedia resources. Evaluate the design and use/integration of the multimedia resource in the lesson using the guidelines specified in the module resources. Determine whether it is a good multimedia resource and is utilized well for teaching and learning or not, and provide recommendations for improvement.

Screenshot 2019-08-05 03.13.07

Resource from: http://lrrpublic.cli.det.nsw.edu.au/lrrSecure/Sites/Web/14160/family/families_change.html

The multimedia resource will be evaluated based on the elements of: FORMAT, TEXT and GRAPHICS. 

For the format, I noticed that it is very simple and even the color schemes are not that flashy. The simplicity of this multimedia resource however is commendable because it directs the reader to the lessons in here. The format is also organized because the elements are not mixed up. The main headings are placed on top, whereas the part for the visual aid is dedicated on the left side and also the other essential text for the slide show is separates into bullet points all collected in a box that as the organizer. I also appreciate the format in here because the play button for the lessons are organized in a strategic and accessible way, one on top and one on the bottom.

For the text, the multimedia resource is inclined to professionalism and unity by means of using uniform font types and sizes that can easily be read. In exception however is the title which is in a different font style to probably emphasize it as a title. The text in this multimedia resource also has a notable spacing style because it gives the material some “air” to breathe in a manner that the reader will not have an easier time to read when it has this type of typography. The graphics from this multimedia resource is also effective because what it portrays is significant to what is played and what is typed from the text in the box. Relevance of graphics in a multimedia resource is very important because it also helps enhance the visual literacy for the learner.

Overall, I would say that this multimedia material is effective because it incorporates essential principles such as readability and relevance for visual literacy and engagement in understanding. I have observed however that this kind of resource is targeted for the audience of learners who are children that is why I recommend for this material to have more color contrast and lively colors for the pictures to be able to help stimulate more active thinking, interest, excitement and curiosity for young learners.

Evaluation based on: https://teachpsych.org/Resources/Documents/otrp/pedagogy/classroommultimedia.pdf

EDS 151 E-journal # 3: Visual Literacy

Task: Activity 3 Part 1

Propose five recommendations on how educational institutions may promote or integrate visual literacy into their curriculum or education programs. Provide the bases for your recommendations.

The aspect of visual literacy is essential for the society thriving in the 21st century because the cultivation of this type of literacy can help one to gain motor skills and cognitive capabilities essential to be effective in a modern world filled with information from both the world of reality and and virtual environment.

  • Show pictures of society of the country dating back years ago and encourage students to comment about what is similar and different with the modern day society. 

Through this kind of visual literacy integration, students are given opportunities to have activated thinking that can also be filled with interesting questions about what can be the connection of the society of the past and the society in the present. Students will be also encouraged to have stimulated thinking with this kind of strategy because they will be able to think about the possible connection of history of the society from years ago with the personal lives being lived in the present day by the students.

  • Present pictures about the latest events or news happening in the country and encourage students to acquire information from what is visually observed in what is presented. 

This kind of visual literacy integration can help the students be aware of the society they are living in and also be able to be sensitive of the seen visual clues around them. Through the pictures about news happenings being shown, the students can be guided to also learn how to analyze based on what they can see and also synthesize their analysis into conversations that can be exchanged with each other about the topic.

  • Try to present serious ideas using visual forms instead of words.

This kind of visual literacy strategy can emphasize that language can also be in visual form which can convey and communicate information to others. When this kind of strategy is incorporated by teachers in the classroom, there is also an opportunity for visual literacy to be taken seriously as a main goal to be achieved in the curriculum.

  • Challenge deep thinking of students by presenting photos with no captions

This visual literacy strategy can be used by means of showing outputs of renowned photographer around the world. After showing their products of photographs, the teacher will ask the students to give comment as to why things were shot or set up that way. By means of observing photographs and given the chance to give comments about it, the students will learn how to look at the back of the photo and analyze what context gave way for it or what background of the photographer caused it to be. The critical thinking skills of the students can then be enhanced through this kind of strategy.

  • Encourage creation of arts to cater to diverse styles of learners

Using color and other visual formats in creating art to share expression of feelings can help learners to share emotional responses and tell stories that cannot be accomplished by linguistic capabilities. This kind of visual literacy strategy can then be effective and essential in the field of special education because this can cater to different backgrounds, skills, and abilities.


Briggs, S. (2015, November 7). Why Visual Literacy Is More Important Than Ever & 5 Ways to Cultivate It. informED. Retrieved from https://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/why-visual-literacy-is-more-important-than-ever-10-ways-to-cultivate-it/

Cornett, C. (2003). Creating Meaning Through Literature and the Arts. 

Topiel, E. (n.d.). Visual Literacy Instruction in All Grade Levels: What is Visual Literacy and Why Should We Teach It?. Bright Hub Education. Retrieved from https://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-methods-tips/127753-the-need-for-visual-literacy-instruction-in-k-12-education/

Wu, X., & Newman, M. (2008). Engage and Excite All Learners Through a Visual Literacy Curriculum [PDF File]. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502353.pdf

Task: Activity 3 Part 2

  1. Non-projected Visuals: Present an example of non-projected visuals and evaluate it based on the principles of visual design learned in this module. For each set of visual components and their corresponding aspects (i.e. elements, pattern, and arrangement), assess whether the sample material has met the visual design standard discussed in Resource 4. Afterwards, explain point-by-point how this visual material may be improved (according to the principles of visual design).


Nitrogen cycle from brochure Was Life Created?

Three aspects will be evaluated from the non-projected material above: PROXIMITY, ALIGNMENT and CONTRAST.

In terms of proximity, the elements from the material above are seen to be close together in a reasonable way meaning it presents the concept of cohesiveness for the reader which also means that the arrangement of elements are easy to understand and follow. For the non-projected material about the nitrogen cycle above, there is a clear division of the two sides for events happening on top of the land and in the skies and about what is happening underground on the other hand. The alignment is evident in here because elements corresponding to what is happening on top of the land is clearly placed on top whereas elements corresponding to what is happening below the ground are also placed on the lower side of the non-projected material.

One of the aspects that are commendable in this non-projected material is about contrast of text and colors. The uniform color of orange is significantly used for the arrows because it complements in terms of contrasting against the dark color on the lower half and the blue color on the upper half. The contrast of the orange arrow is also appealing because it is not overwhelming for the eyes. The font color of black and font style of sans serif also makes this non-projected material readable for all ages and the labels are also simple and direct to the point that is why it the illustration of nitrogen cycle is not too crowded but the spaces provided gives every element an opportunity to be peacefully comprehended by the reader. The graphics and drawings used are also accurate and significantly used in terms of illustrating what composes the nitrogen cycle. A point that can be improved for this material is to make sure that some of the text such as the “Nitrogen compounds”, “Bacteria”, and “Organic molecules” are placed in position that present better contrast so that the whole material can even be more effective and readable for others.

Evaluation based on: https://library.gwu.edu/utlc/teaching/design-principles-enhance-teaching



EDS 151 E-journal # 2: Evaluation of a Print Material- Is it Effective?

Activity 2:

Show a sample of an instructional print material. Evaluate its effectiveness based on the design principles discussed in the resources in this module.

This print material to be evaluated is derived from the brochure 10 Questions Young People Ask under Question 5 “What if I’m Being Bullied at School?”.



The content of this brochure is intended to help teenagers and young people about important concepts to know about such as bullying. The print material about is indeed appropriate for this specific kind of audience because it uses simple yet comprehensive vocabulary that is significant for the real life context of young people. Another observation for this print material is that the information is presented in bullet points that is why this is an evidence that the content is well organized and well-written that is why it is easy to follow and read.


For the design of the print material above, the layout shows that the heading and key points are in a consistent manner wherein the tips on what to know about bullying are all presented in unified bullet points, capital letters, and font color of red to show emphasis. The font design of the text is also in san serif fonts wherein compared with using serif, this font type is more readable to the eyes. The type styles and sizes used are also reasonable in terms of being readable and the consistency of it also minimizes distraction and also shows that it is a size that is readable for all ages.

The alignment of the paragraphs are observed to not be justified that results to the feature of informality being easy to read. In the features of the graphics used in the box below, the icons used can also be marked as effective. For an example, the graphics used for verbal attacks is interesting because the inclusion of the drawing of fire for an example, emphasizes that the bullying through words is also something to be taken seriously. The color schemes in this print material also show contrasts which leads to being readable and appealing for the audience. Overall, this print material is recommended because it shows effectiveness when evaluated in terms content and design.


Brochure print material derived from: https://download-a.akamaihd.net/files/media_publication/e1/ypq_E.pdf

Lamb, A. (2005). Designing & developing resources: Print materials (Chap 7). In Building
treehouses for learning: Technology in today’s classrooms, 243 – 272. Retrieved from

EDS 151 E-journal # 1- TPACK & ASSURE

Activity 1 Part 1

  1. According to Mishra & Koehler (2006), “merely introducing technology to the educational process is not enough.” Why is it not enough? What other matters or concerns teachers should look into and consider in relation to use and integration of instructional media and technology?

The factors that teachers should take into consideration when integrating instructional media and technology inside the classroom is about the aspect of what will improve or hinder learning. Teachers should not just randomly integrate technology inside the classroom but should also have a foundation of thinking about what is effective and engaging for the learners’ environment and also think about whether or not the technology to be implemented will be in line with the content or discipline to be taught based on each grade level in school.

2. How can the understanding of TPACK framework help teachers effectively integrate technology in teaching? How can teachers develop their TPC knowledge?

Understanding the TPACK framework helps the teachers to have a background perspective about how learners can be productive in acquiring of knowledge and also understanding of concepts. By means of understanding the TPACK framework, teachers can also clarify and classify which types of knowledge can be blending with the incorporation of technology inside the class. The TPACK framework can also be a big help for teachers to not just randomly pick technology to use inside the class but also make sure that this is holistic with the content that is part of the objective to be taught and also connects with the pedagogical understanding of what help environment of learners to be more engaging and interesting especially in the context of the 21st century society.

3. Give an example or describe a situation wherein TPC knowledge is effectively applied in teaching? Explain why you think this is a good illustration of TPACK.

The example of effective application of TPC knowledge inside the classroom is provided by the website Schoology Exchange wherein in a Biology class, a group is given a electronic device wherein the students are given tasks of recording their explanation of what type of organelle to they like to personify and how their role is significant for the cell. After recording, the students will also be given the task by the teacher of uploading this to their media portfolio so that other classmates can also view it and also be given the opportunity to give critique and feedback.

This is a good illustration of TPACK because it not only is the strategy significant to the content taught by the teacher but the pedagogical knowledge applied in here also shows that there is a teamwork between the teacher and students and its theme is also learner-centered because the members of class are the ones who are producers of knowledge by means of being in control of technological materials. By means of using the materials of the electronic recording devices and uploading its outputs in a multimedia portfolio, it can also be observed that technological knowledge is effectively integrated in the lesson plan which then results to accomplishing the features of TPACK framework.

Activity 1 Part 2

  1. Develop an instructional plan using the ASSURE model.
  2. Decide what the characteristics of your hypothetical students and the learning context will be.
  3. Indicate clearly in the instructional plan the learner’s characteristics and background.
  4. Please also include the type of learning institution (private, public, non-formal, basic education, tertiary level, etc.) the supposed instruction is going to be conducted.

ASSURE Model Lesson Plan

Lesson Title: Soil Erosion

Grade Level: Grade 5 (private)

Lesson Length: 50 minutes

I. Analyze Learners

Learners’ general characteristics: This instructional plan is designed for 5th grade elementary students. This class have various characteristics of socio-emotional aspect such as being happy with the company of peers. 5th graders are also under the process of growth spurts which leads to having challenges with swings of moods and emotions which also leads to being impulsive with their making of decisions.
Entry characteristics:  Technologically inclined that why their interest are with modern devices such as phones and tablets with games and access to digital networks of social media.
Learning styles: The class comprises of diverse learning styles but the 5th grade students in this regard have notable characteristics of cognitive aspect of being increasing able to engage in abstract thinking, problem solving and doing processes of organizing, classifying and organizing and language aspects of being able to listen well to the teacher and being able to explain well what they have learned.

II. State Standards and Objectives

  • Introduce terminology of erosion
  • Help learners describe the changes Earth’s materials undergo
  • Observe the process of erosion
  • Analyze the importance of plants to prevent soil erosion

This lesson is based on the standards and objectives of Philippine K-12 Science Curriculum for Grade 5 students.
Objective 1: The students will be able to learn about the concept of soil erosion by means of taking noted of main definitions and terminologies about it to be able to have a holistic perspective on the lesson.
Objective 2: The students will be able to describe what changes materials of the Earth undergo such as what happens to rocks and soil when subjected under specific conditions.
Objective 3: The students will be able to cultivate the skill of conclusion by means of observing the process of erosion.
            Objective 4:  The students will be able to think about their actions not only for the present but also for the future by means of formulating solutions on thinking about the importance of plants for preventing soil erosion.

III. Select Strategies, Methods, Media, and Materials

Strategies. This instructional plan will include balanced blending of both teacher-centered and learner-centered strategies

Technology and Materials. In the part of analyzing learners mentioned at the beginning of this instructional plan, it states that the grade 5 students are already acquainted with technological devices that is why the activities in here will also incorporate aspects of technology with the help of software and other internet websites.

Media. For the accomplishment of their assignments, students will be encouraged to use a mix of elements from photos, texts, drawing, videos and voice recording.
IV. Utilize Technology, Media, and Materials

Prepare the materials: With the assistance of the instructional technology coordinator,
Classroom computers and chrome books will be checked and ready for student
use. Appropriate software will be accessible to the students.

Prepare the environment: To encourage learners for teamwork and collaboration using technology, chairs would be rearranged for set of groups and if possible, ensure that each group has a technological device of a tablet to access activities to be accomplished.

Prepare the learners:  Handouts of instructions about what to do will be given out to the students to also have a clear perspective about the activities to be done.

V. Require Learner Participation
The student participation for this part will be based on the characteristics of learners of enjoying the company of peers which leads to their capabilities for cooperation and teamwork. The participation of learners for this lessons will include both activities for large and small groups.

Large group activities: The lesson will begin with students learning about the                           importance of discussing the concept of soil erosion by means of watching a news clip about a landslide that occurred in the Philippines after a strong typhoon. After this the teacher will present definitions about soil erosion. The teacher will then encourage the students to think about the connection of the landslide news clip with the given definitions about soil erosion and they will write this in a Google document. The process of erosion will then be observed by means of conducting a science experiment and observations will once again be encouraged for the students to write it in the Google document.

Small group activities: The large group of students will be broken into groups of three or four to be given an assessment about understanding of concept of soil erosion to be accessed through the use of the software Quizlet via the tablets as device. For the fourth objective, each group will also formulate a Powerpoint presentation about their ideas about how there will be more plants in the environment to prevent soil erosion.
VI. Evaluate and Revise

The students are given by the teachers activities wherein they can collaborate and are also given the opportunity to formulate their own products of learning. Assessment is also varied because there are aspects of observation, reflection, answering of quizzes, and also portfolio of learning of making solutions for the environment.

How does the instructional plan created demonstrates the effective merging and application of TPACK? What is the level of technology integration instruction is designed to achieve?

The instructional plan created can be considered as having an effective merging and application of TPACK because it not only presents the essential content about soil erosion but it also considers for the pedagogical aspect the learner characteristics of the fifth grade students which is about the enjoying of company and collaboration. The result of the is 5th process in the ASSURE instructional plan of learner participation are activities that include work in the class to be done in groups. Technological knowledge to complete the TPACK framework in this plan is also included by means of using technological materials of videos from Youtube, assessment to be hosted by Quizlet, reflections to be composed on Google documents and reports to be made by learners through Powerpoint presentations. When analyzed, the instructional plan above presents a level of technology instruction that is adaptation because in this manner, the role of the teacher is being a facilitator for students to have an independence in terms of using technological tools for activities of learning. The characteristic of this level of technology instruction is also collaborative because the students in this regard are given the opportunity to work with other in groups when talking about using technology for learning.


Heick, T. (2017, September 20). 5 Levels Of Technology Integration In Curriculum. Retrieved from https://teachthought.com/technology/5-levels-of-technology-integration-in-curriculum/

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x. Retrieved from http://onlinelearningcurriculumcommittee.pbworks.com/f/mishra.pdf

Rodgers, D. (2018, January 19). 5 Levels Of Technology Integration In Curriculum. Schoology Exchange. Retrieved from https://www.schoology.com/blog/tpack-framework-explained

ASSURE Instructional Design Model. Frameworks and Theories in the open website of http://www.educationaltechnology.net. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/assure-instructional-design-model/